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An ideal protease for ethanol industry, suitable for high concentration fermentation, promotes yeast growth and enables higher ethanol yields.
Acid Protease AP-100 is made from robust strains of Aspergillus niger using submerged fermentation, extraction, and refining techniques. AP-100 can effectively hydrolyze proteins under acidic conditions.
AP-100 can be used in the production of fuel ethanol where protein hydrolysis is needed under low pH conditions.
Declared Enzyme: Acid Protease
Systematic Name: EC 18.104.22.168
Activity: 100,000U/ml (minimum)
Appearance: Black Brown Liquid
Product pH: 3.5 to 6.0
Specific gravity: 1.15 to 1.25 g/ml
EFFECT OF pH
The effective pH range of AP-100 is 2.0 to 6.0, with an optimum pH from 2.5 to 3.5.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
The activity of AP-100 is effective in the range from 30°C to 65°C, with an optimum performance obtained at 40°C to 50°C. The exact temperature optimum depends on actual process conditions including time, pH, and substrate nature and substrate concentration.
EFFECT OF METAL IONS
AP-100 is activated by Mn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. Heavy metal ions such as Cu2+, Hg2+ and Al3+ will inhibit the enzyme activity of AP-100.
ADVANTAGES AND PERFORMANCE BENEFITS
Use of AP-100 in fermentation process offers the following benefits:
n Improved fermentation, saccharification and oil extraction
AP-100 can hydrolyze the proteins present in the raw materials, destroy the interstitial cell wall structure of starch granules, thereby release the starch wrapped in the granules, result in improved saccharification as well as free bound oil.
n Enhanced yeast growth
Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN) is the most effective nitrogen source for yeast. The addition of AP-100 during alcoholic fermentation can effectively hydrolyze proteins and peptides in the raw materials so as to generate FAN that the yeast can absorb. The absorption of the free amino nitrogen promotes yeast growth, increases the quantity of yeast in the fermented mash, and shortens the fermentation cycle.
n Increased ethanol yields
The use of AP-100 in the propagation and/or fermentation steps to form Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN) can not only shorten the fermentation cycle but also increase the output of alcohol, improve ethanol tolerance and survival rate of yeast.
n Reduces urea/ammonia usage
The increased FAN produced by use of AP-100 may result in a reduced need for urea/ammonia addition. Exact reduction levels will need to be determined based upon fermentation results.
In intermittent fermentation, the entire dose of AP-100 should be added all at once after the fermentation tank is filled approximately 30%. In continuous fermentation, AP-100 should be added continually, with the dosage rate dependent on the amount of mash fed at the inlet of the fermentation tank.
The typical dosage rate for AP-100 is 0.01% to 0.02% w/w (dry solids basis) and this dosage level is recommended as a starting point for optimizing the enzyme dosage. The optimum enzyme dosage depends on the raw materials used (substrate nature and concentration) and the actual processing conditions.
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